Gorse is a highly invasive [Weed of National Significance](http://weeds.ala.org.au/WoNS/gorse/), that adversely impacts biodiversity and agriculture in Australia. Four biological control agents have been released for gorse:
1. [Gorse seed weevil *Exapion ulicis*](https://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:ff3790c3-768f-4739-8203-bfba5e3e96fc)
2. [Gorse spider mite *Tetranychus lintearius*](https://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:46a66ea6-8fe9-4ca1-b21f-5873f4b068d5)
3. [Gorse thrips *Sericothrips staphylinus*](https://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:2df8abe8-efa4-4f53-b1e3-ab7db5600112)
4. [Gorse soft shoot moth *Agonopterix umbellana*](https://bie.ala.org.au/species/NZOR-4-49142#overview)
In the long term, these four agents are expected to reduce gorse vigour and reproduction. The first two, gorse seed weevil and gorse spider mite are now widespread, but their full distribution has not been mapped. Gorse thrips has been widely released, but population growth and dispersal appears to be slow.
The most recent agent, gorse soft shoot moth, is established and abundant at several sites in Tasmania. Gorse soft shoot moth has undergone limited release in mainland states. An active program, involving scientists, farmers, public land managers and volunteers, is collecting gorse soft shoot moth from Tasmania to supplement mainland releases. Gorse soft shoot moth is collected as either larvae (usually in December) or as adult moths (late-summer to autumn). Researchers are studying conditions that favour establishment, such as life-stage released, release number, the use of temporary field tents, shading, and host plant condition.
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![enter image description here](https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-sUkUwZE-SqE/WSfTfFiSXII/AAAAAAAAAGc/cmFgUNJvMQcdlEYmzIwKvN6p180UMRMYACLcB/s0/GSSM+cropped.jpg "GSSM cropped.jpg")
Collecting gorse soft shoot moth in the Tasmanian midlands