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Victoria and South Australia have large and thriving Koala populations, unlike Queensland, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory where Koala populations are in decline and are listed as vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. In most areas of Victoria, Koala densities are naturally low (on average about one per hectare). In some places in Victoria, Koala population densities are so high that the resulting browsing pressure on their preferred food trees is unsustainable and is a threat to the integrity of entire forest patches and the health and welfare of the resident Koalas. This is due to favourable climatic conditions, presence of preferred Eucalyptus food trees, the absence of predators and a high fertility rate. This project is helping us to monitor the dynamics of Victoria's koala populations so that we can more effectively and sustainably manage them for a long and healthy future.