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The number of extreme hot days is predicted to increase significantly over the next few decades in all Australian cities with detrimental impacts on public health, mortality rates, energy demand and economy. The urban heat island effect is an extensively documented climate phenomenon, and is prevalent in many Australian cities. Cities of concrete and stone, and roads paved with asphalt create heat islands that can be significantly hotter than temperatures in the surrounding suburban and rural areas. Urban heat island effects create real problems for cities and for the people who live and work in them. They make life uncomfortable; Can lead to health problems such as heat stroke; Exaggerate airborne pollution by preventing pollution dispersing; Increase the energy use and air conditioning costs needed to keep our buildings cool inside; and intensify global warming. The results from this study will provide data required for citizens to understand, mitigate and adapt to extreme heat.